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Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens L.)

Alternate Title

  • Buxus sempervirens L.

Related Terms

  • Benzenemethanethiol, Buxaceae (family), buxozine-C, Buxus
    balearica, Buxus sempervirens L., Buxus sempervirens var. bullata, common box, European box, Flu Guardâ„¢, SPV30, SPV-30, volatile thiol.

Background

  • Boxwood is an evergreen shrub native to Southern Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa.
  • An extract of boxwood, SPV-30 (Arkopharma, France), has been studied for its potential effects in HIV and AIDS; however, available clinical evidence is inconclusive. Product claims for SPV-30 have been controversial.
  • There is currently insufficient available evidence in humans to support the use of boxwood for any medical indication.

Evidence Table

    Disclaimer

    These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

    H – H


    C C – C

*Key to grades:

Tradition

    Disclaimer

    The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

Dosing

    Disclaimer

    The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

  • Adults (over 18 years old)

    • There is no proven safe or effective dose for boxwood in adults.
  • Children (under 18 years old)

    • There is no proven safe or effective dose for boxwood in children.

Safety

    Disclaimer

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

  • Allergies

    • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to boxwood or its constituents.
    • Skin rash is possible.
  • Side Effects and Warnings

    • There are few reports available of adverse effects associated with boxwood. However, skin rash has been reported.
    • Use cautiously in patients with HIV/AIDS or high blood pressure.
  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    • Boxwood is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

    Disclaimer

    Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

  • Interactions with Drugs

    • Boxwood may alter blood pressure and interact with heart medications.
    • Boxwood may interact with cholinergic drugs or antivirals.
    • Boxwood may increase the effects of steroids; caution is advised.
  • Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

    • Boxwood may alter blood pressure and interact with herbs and supplements that affect the heart.
    • Boxwood may interact with cholinergic agents or antivirals.
    • Boxwood may increase the effects of steroidal agents; caution is advised.

Attribution

  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration ().

Bibliography

    Disclaimer

    Natural Standard developed the above evidence-based information based on a thorough systematic review of the available scientific articles. For comprehensive information about alternative and complementary therapies on the professional level, go to . Selected references are listed below.

  • Ahmed D, Choudhary MI, Turkoz S, et al. Chemical Constituents of Buxus sempervirens. Planta Med 1988;54(2):173-174.
    View Abstract
  • Ata A, Naz S, Choudhary MI, et al. New triterpenoidal alkaloids from Buxus sempervirens. Z Naturforsch.[C.] 2002;57(1-2):21-28.
    View Abstract
  • Atta-ur-Rahman Au, Ata A, Naz S, et al. New steroidal alkaloids from the roots of buxus sempervirens. J Nat Prod. 1999;62(5):665-669.
    View Abstract
  • Durant J, Chantre PH, Gonzalez G, et al. Efficacy and safety of Buxus sempervirens L. preparations (SPV-30) in HIV-infected asymptomatic patients: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine 1998;5(1):10.
  • Ernst E. [How “ethics arguments” hinder research. With Buxus sempervirens against AIDS?]. Fortschr.Med. 5-20-1998;116(14):6-7.
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  • Gollub MJ, Gerdes H, Bains MS. Radiographic appearances of esophageal stents. Radiographics 1997;17(5):1169-1182.
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  • Kvaltinova Z, Lukovic L, Machova J, et al. Effect of the steroidal alkaloid buxaminol-E on blood pressure, acetylcholinesterase activity and (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding in cerebral cortex. Pharmacology 1991;43(1):20-25.
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  • Liu JP, Manheimer E, Yang M. Herbal medicines for treating HIV infection and AIDS. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2005;(3):CD003937.
    View Abstract
  • Loru F, Duval D, Aumelas A, et al. Four steroidal alkaloids from the leaves of Buxus sempervirens. Phytochemistry 2000;54(8):951-957.
    View Abstract
  • Orhan I, Sener B, Choudhary MI, et al. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;91(1):57-60.
    View Abstract
  • Promising results for SPV-30. AIDS Patient.Care 1995;9(5):259.
    View Abstract
  • SPV-30 shows encouraging results. AIDS Patient.Care STDS. 1996;10(3):186-187.
    View Abstract
  • Tominaga T, Guimbertau G, Dubourdieu D. Contribution of benzenemethanethiol to smoky aroma of certain Vitis vinifera L. wines. J Agric.Food Chem 2-26-2003;51(5):1373-1376.
    View Abstract
  • Van Neer FJ, van Ginkel CJ. Allergic contact dermatitis from a boxwood recorder. Contact Dermatitis 1997;36(6):305.
    View Abstract